Category Archives: ordered pairs

Linear transformations, geometrically


Following a recent blog post relating a transformation of points on a line to points on another line to the graph of the equation relating the input and output I thought it would be interesting to explore the linear and affine mappings of a plane to itself from a geometrical construction perspective.

It was ! (To me anyway)

These linear mappings  (rigid and not so rigid motions) are usually  approached in descriptive and manipulative  ways, but always very specifically. I wanted to go directly from the transformation as equations directly to the transformation as geometry.

Taking an example, (x,y) maps to (X,Y) with the linear equations

X = x + y + 1 and Y = -0.5x +y

it was necessary to construct a point on the x axis with the value of X, and likewise a point on the y axis with the value of Y. The transformed (x,y) is then the point (X,Y) on the plane.

The construction below shows the points and lines needed to establish the point(X,0), which is G in the picture, starting with the point D as the (x,y)


transform of x

The corresponding construction was done for Y, and the resulting point (X,Y) is point J. Point D was then forced to lie on a line, the sloping blue line, and as it is moved along the line the transformed point J moves on another line

gif for lin affine trans1

Now the (x,y) point (B in the picture below, don’t ask why!) is forced to move on the blue circle. What does the transformed point do? It moves on an ellipse, whose size and orientation are determined by the actual transformation. At this point matrix methods become very handy.(though the 2D matrix methods cannot deal with translations)

gif for lin affine trans2

All this was constructed with my geometrical construction program (APP if you like) called GEOSTRUCT and available as a free web based application from

The program produces a listing of all the actions requested, and these are listed below for this application:

Line bb moved to pass through Point A
New line cc created, through points B and C
New Point D
New line dd created, through Point D, at right angles to Line aa
New line ee created, through Point D, at right angles to Line bb
New line ff created, through Point D, parallel to Line cc
New point E created as the intersection of Line ff and Line aa
New line gg created, through Point E, at right angles to Line aa
New line hh created, through Point B, at right angles to Line bb
New point F created as the intersection of Line hh and Line gg
New line ii created, through Point F, parallel to Line cc
New point G created as the intersection of Line ii and Line aa

G is the X coordinate, from X = x + y + 1 (added by me)

New line jj created, through Point G, at right angles to Line aa
New line kk created, through Point D, at right angles to Line cc
New point H created as the intersection of Line kk and Line bb
New point I created, as midpoint of points H and B
New line ll created, through Point I, at right angles to Line bb
New point J created as the intersection of Line ll and Line jj

J is the Y coordinate, from Y = -x/2 + y  (added by me)
and K is the transformed point (X,Y) Point J chosen as the tracking point (added by me)

New Line mm
Point D moved and placed on Line mm


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Filed under algebra, conics, construction, geometrical, geometry app, geostruct, math, ordered pairs, rigid motion, teaching, transformations, Uncategorized

The square root of minus one asked me “Do I exist?”

Complex number.
“complex” as opposed to “simple” ?
“number” for what ?
Not for counting !
Not for measuring ! We’ll see about that !
“Square root of -1”, maybe, if that means anything at all !

Who needs the “i” ? It’s not essential.
Here goes…..

They say that (a+ib)(p+iq) = ap – bq + (bp + aq)i
But only if i is the square root of -1.

Getting rid of the i
Let us put the a and the b in a+ib together in brackets, as (a,b), and call this “thing” a “pair”.
This gets rid of the (magic) i straightaway.

Let us define an operation * to combine pairs:
(a,b)*(p,q) = (ap-bq, bp+aq)
This is the “pair” version of the “multiplication of complex numbers”.

It’s more interesting to read this as “(a,b) is applied to (p,q)”, and even better if we think of (p,q) as a “variable” and “apply (a,b)” as a function.
Ok, so we will write (x,y) instead of (p,q), and then
(a,b)*(x,y) = (ax-by, bx+ay)
Let us call the output of the “apply (a,b)” function the pair (X,Y)
X = ax-by
Y = bx+ay
Now we can see this as a transformation of points in the plane:
The function “apply (a,b)” sends the point (x,y) to the point (X,Y)

Looking at some simple points we see that
(1,0)*(x,y) = (x,y)….no change at all
(-1,0)*(x,y) = (-x,-y)…the “opposite” of (x,y),
so doing (-1,0)* again gets us back to no change at all.
(0,1)*(x,y) = (-y,x)….which you may recognize as a rotation through 90 deg.
and doing (0,1)* again we get
(0,1)*(0,1)*(x,y) = (0,1)*(-y,x) = (-x,-y)….a rotation through 180 deg.

So with a bit of faith we can see that (0,1)*(0,1) is the same as (-1,0), and also that (-1,0)*(-1,0) = (1,0)…check it!
Consequently we have a system in which there are three interesting operations:
(1,0)* has no effect, it is like multiplying by 1
(-1,0)* makes every thing negative, it is like multiplying by -1, and
(0,1)*(0,1)* has the same effect as (-1,0)*

So we have found something which behaves like the square root of -1, and it is expressed as a pair of ordinary numbers.
It is then quite reasonable to give the name “i” to this “thing”, and use “i squared = -1”.

And generally, a complex number can be seen as a pair of normal (real) numbers, and bye-bye the magic !

When you think about it a fraction also needs two numbers to describe it.

Next post : matrix representation of “apply (a,b) to (x,y)”.


Filed under complex numbers, meaning, ordered pairs